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 sticky  Author  Topic: EXTINCTION THROUGH APATHY  (Read 13993 times)
Cliff-67
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xx Re: EXTINCTION THROUGH APATHY
« Reply #555 on: Jun 19th, 2017, 11:12pm »


No worries folks, its ONLY cracks....

http://hisz.rsoe.hu/alertmap/database/index.php?pageid=event_update&edis_id=NC-20160610-53672-BEL

Then, not far away from there,

http://hisz.rsoe.hu/alertmap/database/index.php?pageid=event_desc&edis_id=NC-20170619-58690-FRA


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TRILLIONS AND TRILLIONS.........................................>>>OO

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xx Re: EXTINCTION THROUGH APATHY
« Reply #556 on: Jun 23rd, 2017, 3:06pm »

AND SO IT BEGINS... wink

USS Reagan crew can sue Japanese company over Fukushima nuclear disaster – court

https://www.rt.com/usa/393665-fukushima-reagan-lawsuit-us/

A federal appeals court has ruled that members of the US Navy can now, in a US court, pursue their lawsuit which alleges that they were exposed to radiation while providing aid after the nuclear crisis in Fukushima, Japan.
On Thursday, the US Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals in San Francisco ruled in favor of the sailors who were exposed to dangerous levels of radiation while providing humanitarian aid after an earthquake destroyed the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan.

The ruling allows sailors, who were aboard the ship at the time, to pursue their lawsuit against the state-owned Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) for misrepresented radiation levels in the surrounding air and water. The lawsuit alleges that TEPCO misled them about the extent of the radiation leak.


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SHALOM...Z

« Last Edit: Jun 23rd, 2017, 3:07pm by ZETAR » User IP Logged

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xx Re: EXTINCTION THROUGH APATHY
« Reply #557 on: Jun 23rd, 2017, 4:17pm »

SO IT DOES,
What, might "NOT" be part of the suit, is this, and how so many got sick.


http://www.naval-technology.com/contractors/logistics/salt-separation-ltd/


As a reminder, there is plenty of water.

.
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xx Re: EXTINCTION THROUGH APATHY
« Reply #558 on: Jun 24th, 2017, 08:09am »

I wonder which bunch of ambulance chasing lawyers thought of that.

Who knows, maybe the victims of Hiroshima and Nagasaki will sue the US government for the radiation effects as well.

The whole thing is getting ridiculous.

If one is worried about the radiation, stay away and leave the job to those aren't.

HAL
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xx Re: EXTINCTION THROUGH APATHY
« Reply #559 on: Jun 24th, 2017, 11:14am »

HAL,

"I wonder which bunch of ambulance chasing lawyers thought of that.

Who knows, maybe the victims of Hiroshima and Nagasaki will sue the US government for the radiation effects as well.

The whole thing is getting ridiculous.

If one is worried about the radiation, stay away and leave the job to those aren't."


I'M GUESSIN[SP]...YOU'RE IN STIR MODE cool

Kyodo, May 19, 2016: Former Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi has thrown his support behind a group of former U.S. sailors suing the operator of the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear plant… Speaking at a news conference Tuesday in Carlsbad, California, with some of the plaintiffs, Koizumi said, “Those who gave their all to assist Japan are now suffering from serious illness… I learned that the number of sick people is still increasing, and their symptoms are worsening,” he told the news conference… According to lawyers for the group, seven of its members have died so far, including some from leukemia [Three deaths had been reported as of last July].

http://enenews.com/spike-number-sailors-dying-after-fukushima-radiation-exposure-400-veterans-suffering-serious-illnesses-former-japan-prime-minister-breaks-down-crying-be-ignored-longer-number-sick-people-increas

Asahi Shimbun, May 19, 2016: Former Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi broke down in tears as he made an emotional plea of support for U.S. Navy sailors beset by health problems… More than 400 veterans who were part of a mission called Operation Tomodachi… filed a mass lawsuit in California against [TEPCO]. They are seeking compensation and an explanation for their health problems… Koizumi said: “U.S. military personnel who did their utmost in providing relief are now suffering from serious illnesses. We cannot ignore the situation.”

Apparently overcome with emotion, Koizumi started crying…

SHALOM...Z
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xx Re: EXTINCTION THROUGH APATHY
« Reply #560 on: Jun 24th, 2017, 11:31am »

Sorry, Hal; the key here is, "Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) misrepresented radiation levels in the surrounding air and water. TEPCO misled them about the extent of the radiation leak."

They have every right to sue and collect.....
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xx Re: EXTINCTION THROUGH APATHY
« Reply #561 on: Jun 24th, 2017, 12:15pm »

Swamp, ZETAR,

Sorry if I came across as a bit cold hearted. that wasn't the intent.

I have every admiration for the people who place themselves in danger while trying to assist others. The People who tried their best in Chernobyl epitomises this. They were dead men walking; and they knew it.

I do believe that people effected by such things as radiation leaks that are caused by avoidable errors should be compensated.
But I object to this being in the hands of lawyers who are, when you get to the bottom line, out to make money for themselves.

We are moving slowly but surely into a risk averse society where if you trip on a cracked pavement it is deemed necessary to sue the local council. Maybe you should have been watching where you were going.

Regulation was brought out in many fields to decrease the chances of injury. But some see this as a sign of government repression and wish to change it. But when this happens and there is an accident because some regulation has been dropped, who will benefit ? Lawyers, who else.

My wife smokes, I don't.

Should I sue her if I get cancer brought on by breathing in the smoke from her tobacco ? Or divorce her as I see this behavior as a real risk to my health.

A lawyer would no doubt say that it would be my fault for remaining in a situation that I foresaw as hazardous.

I would be interested in the panels views on that particular conundrum.

HAL
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xx Re: EXTINCTION THROUGH APATHY
« Reply #562 on: Jun 24th, 2017, 1:42pm »

I don't disagree with the lawyer thing. Ambulance-chaser ads have flooded the airwaves. They want you to sue for every little bit of hardship that comes along!

Don't sue your wife; sue the tobacco company for selling a dangerous product!
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xx Re: EXTINCTION THROUGH APATHY
« Reply #563 on: Jun 24th, 2017, 2:49pm »

HAL-N-SWAMP,

"I would be interested in the panels views on that particular conundrum."

FOR THE CONUNDRUM CURIOUS...cool

A tort is a civil wrong in the sense that it is committed against an individual (which
includes legal entities such as companies) rather than the state. The gist of tort law
is that a person has certain interests which are protected by law.

http://elearn.uni-sofia.bg/pluginfile.php/100711/mod_resource/content/1/understanding_torts.pdf

The paradigm tort consists of an act or omission by the defendant which causes damage
to the claimant. The damage must be caused by the fault of the defendant and
must be a kind of harm recognised as attracting legal liability.
This model can be represented:
act (or omission) + causation + fault + protected interest + damage = liability.


"People are getting smarter nowadays; they are letting lawyers, instead of their conscience, be their guide." ~ Will Rogers


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xx Re: EXTINCTION THROUGH APATHY
« Reply #564 on: Jun 24th, 2017, 3:13pm »

... protected by law...


Ah yes, the law.

'My name is Dredd, Judge Dredd; and I am THE LAW'.

HAL
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xx Re: EXTINCTION THROUGH APATHY
« Reply #565 on: Jun 26th, 2017, 10:06am »

Workers risk lives as others profit

Private operators of nuke weapons labs make millions even when safety suffers

by Peter Cary, Patrick Malone and R. Jeffrey Smith, Center for Public Integrity
June 26, 2017

A wrong turn of a valve at one of the country’s nuclear weapons laboratories unleashed an explosion that easily could have killed two workers.

The near catastrophe in August 2011 at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque lifted the roof of the building, separated a wall and bent an exterior door 30 feet away. One worker was knocked to the floor; another narrowly missed getting hit with flying debris as a fire erupted.

As the Department of Energy investigated over the next three years, the same lab — one of 10 nuclear weapons-related sites that contain radioactive materials in addition to the usual hazards found in industrial settings — had two more serious accidents, both blamed on insufficient safety protocols.

But when the time came for regulators to take action against the company in charge of the lab, officials decided against a financial penalty. They waived a $412,500 fine they had initially proposed, saying Sandia Corp., a subsidiary of Lockheed Martin, had made “significant and positive steps … to improve Sandia’s safety culture.”

This wasn’t a rare outcome. Energy Department documents obtained by the Center for Public Integrity make clear that the nation’s eight nuclear weapons labs and plants and two sites that support them remain dangerous places to work, but their corporate managers often face relatively slight penalties after accidents.

Workers have inhaled radioactive particles that pose lifetime cancer threats. Others received electrical shocks or were burned by acid or in fires. They have been splashed with toxic chemicals and cut by debris from exploding metal drums.

But the private companies the government pays to run the facilities rarely suffer serious financial penalties, even when regulators conclude the companies committed mistakes or paid inadequate attention to safety. Low fines leave taxpayers to finance most of the cleanup and repair of contaminated sites after accidents that officials said never should have happened.

During a yearlong investigation built on a review of thousands of pages of records and interviews with dozens of current and former government officials and contractor employees, the Center for Public Integrity found:

Private firms running laboratories and plants each are paid $40,000 to $160,000 a day in profits alone, a total of more than $2 billion in the past 10 years. But during that period, the Energy Department’s enforcement arm waived or significantly reduced 19 of 21 major fines officials had said were justified because of safety lapses and other workplace misconduct. All told, they forgave $3.3 million of $7.3 million they said could have been imposed.

One reason fines are reduced is federal rules governing Energy Department contractors do not allow the contractors to be fined if their profits were docked for the same infraction. The department argues that this arrangement is still effective. But a review of payments to 10 contractors over a decade shows they earned on average 86% of their maximum potential profits, even though that decade was marked with persistent safety lapses.

When the Energy Department penalized a contractor that shut down the nation’s underground nuclear waste dump in 2014 after an accident that exposed 21 people to radioactive carcinogens, it amounted to a tiny share of the government’s repair costs. Los Alamos National Laboratory, operated by a consortium of four contractors called Los Alamos National Security LLC, was fined $57 million. The government’s cleanup bill? About $1.5 billion.

The frequency of serious accidents and incidents at these facilities has not diminished — as it has at most other industrial workplaces in America — and may have risen significantly. The number of violation notices, letters, and consent orders sent to contractors after accidents and mishaps has more than doubled since 2013.

Many contractors penalized for malfeasance later committed new infractions, federal records show. Some workplace safety experts suggest contractors are building fines and penalties into their business plans.

The private firms the government pays to run its nuclear weapons program employ about 40,000 people from coast to coast. Scientists and other workers often come face to face with toxic chemicals, radioactive materials, nuclear wastes and other dangers as they maintain the planet’s largest atomic arsenal.

They risk immediate peril from explosions and fires, and lurking threats from the cancer causing agents they handle that could slowly erode their health over many years.

“What’s the incentive to do the job right when no matter what you get the money?” asks Ralph Stanton, a worker who inhaled radioactive plutonium in an accident at Idaho National Laboratory in Idaho Falls.

Rooting out details of safety incidents from Energy Department reports — many of which are based on contractors’ self-reporting — is difficult.

Annual profits for the contractors that run nuclear weapons-related sites range from $15 million to $60 million for each company.

But the nuclear weapons work is commonly viewed as “extremely low-risk” financially, as a top National Nuclear Security Administration official said in an email to Sandia executives in October 2009.

Contractors commit “virtually no financial investment” because they have relatively few expenditures the federal government won’t reimburse, the official noted. To get in trouble takes “a complete screw-up/bad faith.”

The government can, but rarely does, terminate contracts for poor performance. Most firms have been able to count on a decade or more of steady income once they win a contract.

The contract experience of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 30 miles east of San Francisco, illustrates how the government’s leverage is sometimes ignored.

Livermore, where warheads are designed and related work is performed, experienced a series of problems in 2012. Its contractor consortium, called Lawrence Livermore National Security LLC, includes public companies Babcock and Wilcox and URS Corp., now a subsidiary of AECOM engineering; private companies Bechtel National and Battelle; and the University of California.

An effort to create fusion by bombarding hydrogen with highpowered lasers failed to deliver. The lab mismanaged money on another project and experienced several electrical safety incidents, according to government reports.

So it received only 78% of the profit available to it for good performance, 2 points below the minimum needed to get an additional year automatically tacked onto its contract. It also got $20.8 million in additional, fixed profit.

But the National Nuclear Security Administration’s then-deputy administrator, Neile Miller, gave the lab an extra $541,527, pushing the performance profit over the 80% threshold to get the extra year. Total profit wound up being 88% of the maximum possible.

(At a congressional hearing in April 2013, Miller told lawmakers critical of the decision that she did so to support efforts from the lab’s new director to improve performance as a “one-time pass.”)

Livermore “takes its safety and security very seriously,” and the lab’s safety record has been improving, said Greg Wolf, National Nuclear Security Administration spokesman. “Employees go through extensive training, and work undergoes rigorous analysis to ensure protective measures are in place.”

The Center for Public Integrity is a non-profit investigative news organization in Washington, D.C.

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xx Re: EXTINCTION THROUGH APATHY
« Reply #566 on: Jun 30th, 2017, 1:54pm »

Fukushima No. 1 Negligence Trial

Ex-Tepco execs plead innocent as 3/11 nuclear negligence trial kicks off

by Daisuke Kikuchi, Staff Writer
Jun 30, 2017

Three former top executives at Tokyo Electric pleaded not guilty Friday to charges related to the triple core meltdown at the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant in 2011, which forced at least 150,000 people to evacuate and caused considerable damage to the prefecture’s economy.

The trial, which opened Friday at the Tokyo District Court, is the first in which criminal charges have been pressed in connection with the Fukushima disaster.

Facing massive liabilities, the utility received a government bailout and was restructured into Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings Inc. It is better known as Tepco.

Criminal complaints against more than 50 state and Tepco officials have been filed by residents of Fukushima and other people since 2012.

On trial are ex-Tepco chairman Tsunehisa Katsumata, 77, and former Vice Presidents Sakae Muto, 67, and Ichiro Takekuro, 71. The three are being charged with professional negligence resulting in death and injury.

The charges are linked to the deaths of about 40 patients at Futaba Hospital in the town of Futaba who were forced to flee the Fukushima area and later died.

The trial was set when a previous judgment by prosecutors not to pursue charges was overturned by an Inquest of Prosecution — a rare procedure that can be used to appeal such a decision before a panel of ordinary citizens.

According to a court spokeswoman, a line of more than 700 people began forming at 7:30 a.m. for a chance witness the trial and 54 were let in.

During Friday’s trial session, the three former executives apologized but maintained that it was impossible to foresee the giant tsunami that swamped the plant on March 11, 2011.

“I apologize for causing the serious accident,” said Katsumata, before adding that “it was impossible to predict.”

However, a government report published in 2011 concluded that Tepco was aware that a 15.7-meter-high tsunami could hit the plant if a giant quake occurred off the coast of Fukushima, based on a simulation in 2008 that modeled the impact of a tsunami on the plant, whose seawall was woefully overmatched by the powerful waves.

The 2002 estimate by the government’s Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion also estimated that there was a 20 percent chance of a magnitude 8 earthquake striking off Fukushima within 30 years.

The 2008 data were relayed to Takekuro and Muto, who were in charge of Tepco’s nuclear business at that time, and were also “very likely” to have been reported to Katsumata by June 2009 at the latest, according to an independent committee of citizens that reviewed the prosecutors’ decision not to press charges.

In court Friday, however, Katsumata told prosecutors that he has “no memory of having been briefed” on the information.

The main reason prosecutors had decided not to pursue a criminal case was their belief that the nuclear accident was unavoidable, even if the three had decided to introduce tsunami countermeasures based on the 2008 data.

The simulation suggested the need to build a seawall on the south side of the plant, covering a portion of coastline about 300 meters long. But in March 2011, tsunami reaching heights of around 14 to 15 meters impacted the east side of the plant, which faces the Pacific Ocean, swamping a far longer stretch of coastline.

As the hearing opened, a group that had pushed for the trial met at the House of Councilors, to share their experiences from the nuclear disaster with others and express their views on Tepco.

“I’m glad that the first hearing was finally held. We finally (came) all this way, and this is our true beginning,” said Miwa Chiwaki, one of the members of the group.

Named the Complainants for the Criminal Prosecution of the Fukushima Nuclear Disaster, the group had been submitting criminal complaints to prosecutors since June 2012, but it wasn’t until July 2015 that mandatory indictment for the three former executives was approved.

“No one has been held responsible so far, and the true background information of the Fukushima nuclear disaster remains unclear,” Chiwaki said.

Another speaker, Yui Kimura, said the blame rests with them: “They hide behind their job titles, and don’t accept their responsibilities as people.”

The triple meltdown in 2011 was the world’s worst nuclear disaster since Chernobyl in 1986. It forced about 80,000 residents of the prefecture to leave their homes, many of them for good.

The 2011 mega-quake, tsunami and nuclear disaster left some 18,500 people dead or missing, but Tepco’s plants have not been officially blamed for causing any of the deaths.

“I know that this trial could become great motivation for the other trials (involving Tepco) taking place nationwide,” said Chiwaki.

http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2017/06/30/national/crime-legal/three-former-tepco-executives-go-trial-311-fukushima-nuclear-disaster/#.WVaVo1GQyUl

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xx Re: EXTINCTION THROUGH APATHY
« Reply #567 on: Jun 30th, 2017, 2:25pm »

on Jun 30th, 2017, 1:54pm, Swamprat wrote:
Fukushima No. 1 Negligence Trial

Ex-Tepco execs plead innocent as 3/11 nuclear negligence trial kicks off

by Daisuke Kikuchi, Staff Writer
Jun 30, 2017

Three former top executives at Tokyo Electric pleaded not guilty Friday to charges related to the triple core meltdown at the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant in 2011, which forced at least 150,000 people to evacuate and caused considerable damage to the prefecture’s economy.

The trial, which opened Friday at the Tokyo District Court, is the first in which criminal charges have been pressed in connection with the Fukushima disaster.

Facing massive liabilities, the utility received a government bailout and was restructured into Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings Inc. It is better known as Tepco.

Criminal complaints against more than 50 state and Tepco officials have been filed by residents of Fukushima and other people since 2012.

On trial are ex-Tepco chairman Tsunehisa Katsumata, 77, and former Vice Presidents Sakae Muto, 67, and Ichiro Takekuro, 71. The three are being charged with professional negligence resulting in death and injury.

The charges are linked to the deaths of about 40 patients at Futaba Hospital in the town of Futaba who were forced to flee the Fukushima area and later died.

The trial was set when a previous judgment by prosecutors not to pursue charges was overturned by an Inquest of Prosecution — a rare procedure that can be used to appeal such a decision before a panel of ordinary citizens.

According to a court spokeswoman, a line of more than 700 people began forming at 7:30 a.m. for a chance witness the trial and 54 were let in.

During Friday’s trial session, the three former executives apologized but maintained that it was impossible to foresee the giant tsunami that swamped the plant on March 11, 2011.

“I apologize for causing the serious accident,” said Katsumata, before adding that “it was impossible to predict.”

However, a government report published in 2011 concluded that Tepco was aware that a 15.7-meter-high tsunami could hit the plant if a giant quake occurred off the coast of Fukushima, based on a simulation in 2008 that modeled the impact of a tsunami on the plant, whose seawall was woefully overmatched by the powerful waves.

The 2002 estimate by the government’s Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion also estimated that there was a 20 percent chance of a magnitude 8 earthquake striking off Fukushima within 30 years.

The 2008 data were relayed to Takekuro and Muto, who were in charge of Tepco’s nuclear business at that time, and were also “very likely” to have been reported to Katsumata by June 2009 at the latest, according to an independent committee of citizens that reviewed the prosecutors’ decision not to press charges.

In court Friday, however, Katsumata told prosecutors that he has “no memory of having been briefed” on the information.

The main reason prosecutors had decided not to pursue a criminal case was their belief that the nuclear accident was unavoidable, even if the three had decided to introduce tsunami countermeasures based on the 2008 data.

The simulation suggested the need to build a seawall on the south side of the plant, covering a portion of coastline about 300 meters long. But in March 2011, tsunami reaching heights of around 14 to 15 meters impacted the east side of the plant, which faces the Pacific Ocean, swamping a far longer stretch of coastline.

As the hearing opened, a group that had pushed for the trial met at the House of Councilors, to share their experiences from the nuclear disaster with others and express their views on Tepco.

“I’m glad that the first hearing was finally held. We finally (came) all this way, and this is our true beginning,” said Miwa Chiwaki, one of the members of the group.

Named the Complainants for the Criminal Prosecution of the Fukushima Nuclear Disaster, the group had been submitting criminal complaints to prosecutors since June 2012, but it wasn’t until July 2015 that mandatory indictment for the three former executives was approved.

“No one has been held responsible so far, and the true background information of the Fukushima nuclear disaster remains unclear,” Chiwaki said.

Another speaker, Yui Kimura, said the blame rests with them: “They hide behind their job titles, and don’t accept their responsibilities as people.”

The triple meltdown in 2011 was the world’s worst nuclear disaster since Chernobyl in 1986. It forced about 80,000 residents of the prefecture to leave their homes, many of them for good.

The 2011 mega-quake, tsunami and nuclear disaster left some 18,500 people dead or missing, but Tepco’s plants have not been officially blamed for causing any of the deaths.

“I know that this trial could become great motivation for the other trials (involving Tepco) taking place nationwide,” said Chiwaki.

http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2017/06/30/national/crime-legal/three-former-tepco-executives-go-trial-311-fukushima-nuclear-disaster/#.WVaVo1GQyUl





“No one has been held responsible so far, and the true background information of the Fukushima nuclear disaster remains unclear,” Chiwaki said.


For starters, how about NOT building reactors in tsunami / earthquake areas ...

Proper installation would help by placing backup generators in designated areas...

Know the schematics ...
( Condensor will fill with water when manually fed - So much for cooling the rods when some of the water went elsewhere.....)





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xx Re: EXTINCTION THROUGH APATHY
« Reply #568 on: Jul 16th, 2017, 11:17pm »

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xx Re: EXTINCTION THROUGH APATHY
« Reply #569 on: Jul 20th, 2017, 09:14am »

Aging U.S. power plants provide risks and opportunities

Date: July 19, 2017
Source: Carnegie Mellon University
Summary: When it comes to the current plans to retire US power plants, researchers believe we are 'running towards a cliff with no fence.' They found that power plant retirement trends will complicate achieving long-term carbon dioxide emission reduction targets and require a significant increase in capital investments.

Published in Energy Policy, CMU's David Rode and Paul Fischbeck and alumnus Antonio Páez, who now works for DAI Management Consultants, examined more than a century of power plant construction and retirement data. They found that power plant retirement trends will complicate achieving long-term carbon dioxide (CO2) emission reduction targets and require a significant increase in capital investments. Additionally, a shift in investment emphasis from adding megawatts of generating capacity at low cost to reducing tons of CO2 emissions is creating an imbalance that may pressure grid reliability over the next two decades.

"There has been comparatively little research into how long power plants actually live," said Rode, a doctoral candidate in the Department of Social and Decision Sciences. "Most of the industry is focused on the addition of new generating capacity, but the retirement of aging capacity is equally important."

While retiring older power plants is often thought of as a way to reduce emissions, as less efficient plants are taken out of service, the U.S. also stands to lose a substantial amount of zero-emitting power plants when the vast majority of the existing nuclear power plant fleet retires between 2030 and 2040, if not before.

"Some 90 percent of every megawatt ever built is still in operation and now is more than 28 years old on average," said Fischbeck, professor of social and decision sciences and engineering and public policy and a world renowned risk expert. "One of the interesting results from our study was that younger coal plants have tended to retire earlier than older coal plants. As these younger plants generally have lower emissions, their retirement tends to be less environmentally beneficial than initially thought."

With the failure of the EPA's proposed Clean Power Plan and the withdrawal from the Paris Climate Agreement, the U.S. is now without a national CO2 reduction objective. The removal of those regulatory constraints expands the opportunities available to utilities and improves their investment flexibility, but it also increases regulatory uncertainty. However, many regions, states and even cities continue to have mandates to reduce CO2 emissions. Coupled with the uncertainty surrounding future national CO2 regulation, these varying mandates create economic conditions that inhibit investment and thereby place even more emphasis on the continuing performance of existing power plants.

"A key factor in meeting these objectives -- or any future national ones -- will be the retirement of existing zero-emitting facilities," said Rode.

The study also provided insight into capital investment behavior in the power generation sector.

"Despite perennial claims of underinvestment, dollars invested have grown steadily -- in constant dollars -- for decades. The difference is that they have tended to lead to fewer megawatts of new capacity and have focused instead on reductions in emissions," Rode said.

Rode, Fischbeck and Páez looked at power sector capital investments and found that dollars spent per megawatt-hour generated has increased by nearly 300 percent over the past two decades. However, electric generation has increased by only 26 percent. The incremental expense growth has instead been channeled, in part, to improving environmental performance (tons of CO2 emitted per megawatt-hour) by 17 percent.

Páez said, "Evaluating whether this large increase in investment was well spent requires rethinking how investment performance is measured."

Given the country's rapidly aging power plants, retirements are likely to increase substantially after 2030.

"The spending required just to replace the retiring plants and meet a modest level of growth will require up to five times the level of historical investment activity," Fischbeck said.

Rode continued, "Our research shows that the amount of generation added in 2002, the previous record year, will be needed each year between 2030 and 2040 at a cost of more than $110 billion per year -- a level roughly three times that of the average of the last twenty years. There is no question that the implications of this retirement cliff after 2030 are significant from cost, reliability, and environmental perspectives. Careful planning must begin now."

Story Source:

Materials provided by Carnegie Mellon University. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.
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Journal Reference:
1. David C. Rode, Paul S. Fischbeck, Antonio R. Páez. The retirement cliff: Power plant lives and their policy implications. Energy Policy, 2017; 106: 222 DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2017.03.058
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https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/07/170719113334.htm

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