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 veryhotthread  Author  Topic: Stuff & Nonsense  (Read 91122 times)
WingsofCrystal
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xx Re: Stuff & Nonsense
« Reply #11910 on: Dec 16th, 2014, 08:28am »





Published on Dec 15, 2014

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xx Re: Stuff & Nonsense
« Reply #11911 on: Dec 17th, 2014, 06:55am »

GOOD MORNING CRYSTAL ~ TOMI ~ INKY "T" ~ AND ALL THE CAST AND CHARACTERS A LA CASEBOOK...

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xx Re: Stuff & Nonsense
« Reply #11912 on: Dec 17th, 2014, 08:51am »

GOOD MORNING Z & ALL OF OUR UFOCASEBOOKERS cheesy


Science Daily

NASA Goddard instrument makes first detection of organic matter on Mars

Date:
December 16, 2014

The team responsible for the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite on NASA's Curiosity rover has made the first definitive detection of organic molecules at Mars. Organic molecules are the building blocks of all known forms of terrestrial life, and consist of a wide variety of molecules made primarily of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. However, organic molecules can also be made by chemical reactions that don't involve life, and there is not enough evidence to tell if the matter found by the team came from ancient Martian life or from a non-biological process. Examples of non-biological sources include chemical reactions in water at ancient Martian hot springs or delivery of organic material to Mars by interplanetary dust or fragments of asteroids and comets.

The surface of Mars is currently inhospitable to life as we know it, but there is evidence that the Red Planet once had a climate that could have supported life billions of years ago. For example, features resembling dry riverbeds and minerals that only form in the presence of liquid water have been discovered on the Martian surface. The Curiosity rover with its suite of instruments including SAM was sent to Mars in 2011 to discover more about the ancient habitable Martian environment by examining clues in the chemistry of rocks and the atmosphere.

The organic molecules found by the team were in a drilled sample of the Sheepbed mudstone in Gale crater, the landing site for the Curiosity rover. Scientists think the crater was once the site of a lake billions of years ago, and rocks like mudstone formed from sediment in the lake. Moreover, this mudstone was found to contain 20 percent smectite clays. On Earth, such clays are known to provide high surface area and optimal interlayer sites for the concentration and preservation of organic compounds when rapidly deposited under reducing chemical conditions.

While the team can't conclude that there was life at Gale crater, the discovery shows that the ancient environment offered a supply of reduced organic molecules for use as building blocks for life and an energy source for life. Curiosity's earlier analysis of this same mudstone revealed that the environment offered water and chemical elements essential for life and a different chemical energy source.

"We think life began on Earth around 3.8 billion years ago, and our result shows that places on Mars had the same conditions at that time -- liquid water, a warm environment, and organic matter," said Caroline Freissinet of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. "So if life emerged on Earth in these conditions, why not on Mars as well?" Freissinet is lead author of a paper on this research submitted to the Journal of Geophysical Research-Planets.

The organic molecules found by the team also have chlorine atoms, and include chlorobenzene and several dichloroalkanes, such as dichloroethane, dichloropropane and dichlorobutane. Chlorobenzene is the most abundant with concentrations between 150 and 300 parts-per-billion. Chlorobenzene is not a naturally occurring compound on Earth. It is used in the manufacturing process for pesticides (insecticide DDT), herbicides, adhesives, paints and rubber. Dichloropropane is used as an industrial solvent to make paint strippers, varnishes and furniture finish removers, and is classified as a carcinogen.

It's possible that these chlorine-containing organic molecules were present as such in the mudstone. However, according to the team, it's more likely that a different suite of precursor organic molecules was in the mudstone, and that the chlorinated organics formed from reactions inside the SAM instrument as the sample was heated for analysis. Perchlorates (a chlorine atom bound to four oxygen atoms) are abundant on the surface of Mars. It's possible that as the sample was heated, chlorine from perchlorate combined with fragments from precursor organic molecules in the mudstone to produce the chlorinated organic molecules detected by SAM.

In 1976, the Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer instrument on NASA's Viking landers detected two simple chlorinated hydrocarbons after heating Martian soils for analysis (chloromethane and dichloromethane). However they were not able to rule out that the compounds were derived from the instrument itself, according to the team. While sources within the SAM instrument also produce chlorinated hydrocarbons, they don't make more than 22 parts-per-billion of chlorobenzene, far below the amounts detected in the mudstone sample, giving the team confidence that organic molecules really are present on Mars.

The SAM instrument suite was built at NASA Goddard with significant elements provided by industry, university, and national and international NASA partners.

For this analysis, the Curiosity rover sample acquisition system drilled into a mudstone and filtered fine particles of it through a sieve, then delivered a portion of the sample to the SAM laboratory. SAM detected the compounds using its Evolved Gas Analysis (EGA) mode by heating the sample up to about 875 degrees Celsius (around 1,600 degrees Fahrenheit) and then monitoring the volatiles released from the sample using a quadrupole mass spectrometer, which identifies molecules by their mass using electric fields. SAM also detected and identified the compounds using its Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) mode. In this mode, volatiles are separated by the amount of time they take to travel through a narrow tube (gas chromatography -- certain molecules interact with the sides of the tube more readily and thus travel more slowly) and then identified by their signature mass fragments in the mass spectrometer.

The first evidence for elevated levels of chlorobenzene and dichloroalkanes released from the mudstone was obtained on Curiosity Sol 290 (May 30, 2013) with the third analysis of the Cumberland sample at Sheepbed. The team spent over a year carefully analyzing the result, including conducting laboratory experiments with instruments and methods similar to SAM, to be sure that SAM could not be producing the amount of organic material detected.

"The search for organics on Mars has been extremely challenging for the team," said Daniel Glavin of NASA Goddard, a co-author on the paper. "First, we need to identify environments in Gale crater that would have enabled the concentration of organics in sediments. Then they need to survive the conversion of sediment to rock, where pore fluids and dissolved substances may oxidize and destroy organics. Organics can then be destroyed during exposure of rocks at the surface of Mars to intense ionizing radiation and oxidants. Finally, to identify any organic compounds that have survived, we have to deal with oxychlorine compounds and possibly other strong oxidants in the sample which will react with and combust organic compounds to carbon dioxide and chlorinated hydrocarbons when the samples are heated by SAM."

As part of Curiosity's plan for exploration, an important strategic goal was to sample rocks that represent different combinations of the variables thought to control organic preservation. "The SAM and Mars Science Laboratory teams have worked very hard to achieve this result," said John Grotzinger of Caltech, Mars Science Laboratory's Project Scientist. "Only by drilling additional rock samples in different locations, and representing different geologic histories were we able to tease out this result. At the time we first saw evidence of these organic molecules in the Cumberland sample it was uncertain if they were derived from Mars, however, additional drilling has not produced the same compounds as might be predicted for contamination, indicating that the carbon in the detected organic molecules is very likely of Martian origin."

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/12/141216144137.htm

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xx Re: Stuff & Nonsense
« Reply #11913 on: Dec 17th, 2014, 08:56am »

History.com

December 17, 2014

U.S. Air Force Closes the Book on UFOs, 45 Years Ago

By Evan Andrews

In 1948, inspired by Cold War paranoia and dozens of public sightings, the U.S. government launched the first of several inquiries into so-called “Unidentified Flying Objects.” In what later became known as “Project Blue Book,” a team of U.S. Air Force analysts investigated 12,618 UFO close encounters, eventually debunking the lion’s share as misidentified aircraft or natural phenomena. The Air Force finally terminated the program 45 years ago after concluding that there was no evidence that UFOs were “extraterrestrial vehicles,” but to this day, 701 of Blue Book’s cases remained unexplained.

On the afternoon of June 24, 1947, amateur aviator Kenneth Arnold was flying near Mt. Rainier, Washington, when he suddenly spotted nine unusual objects on the horizon. Arnold claimed the craft flitted from side to side and flipped in unison like “the tail of a Chinese kite,” and he estimated they were moving at around 1,700 miles per hour—far faster than any known aircraft. He initially assumed the physics-defying objects must be secret military vehicles, but he later admitted the incident was “as much a mystery to me as it is to everybody else.” Arnold’s extraordinary story soon found its way into newspapers across the country, and reporters pounced on his description of the objects as moving “like a saucer if you skip it across water.” Within days, the term “flying saucer” was born.

Coupled with the famed July 1947 incident at Roswell, New Mexico, when the Air Force claimed a military weather balloon was mistaken for an alien spacecraft, Arnold’s encounter helped spark a wave of “flying saucer” sightings across the United States. The military brushed aside most of these “close encounters” as misidentifications or mere hokum, but a few reports came from air traffic controllers and commercial pilots—people trained to search the skies with a discerning eye. The hysteria also dovetailed with the beginning of the Cold War, leading many to speculate that the mysterious sightings might be hostile Soviet aircraft.

Following an official Air Force inquiry, Lt. General Nathan Twining fired off a memo in late-1947 describing the “flying disc” phenomenon as “something real and not visionary or fictitious.” He suggested the military launch an investigation into the source of the sightings. By 1948, the Air Force had initiated “Project Sign,” the first of three military offices tasked with collecting and analyzing reports of what were termed “Unidentified Flying Objects.” Project Sign’s investigators quickly concluded that UFOs weren’t coming from behind the Iron Curtain—their flight characteristics simply didn’t match those of any manmade aircraft—but some on the team may have embraced the idea that UFOs were not of this world. According to Air Force officer Edward Ruppelt and others who studied UFOs for the government, Project Sign produced a report in the summer of 1948 speculating that the sightings might be evidence of “interplanetary” or extraterrestrial craft. Air Force brass supposedly rejected and destroyed the document on the grounds that there was no hard evidence for its conclusions. To this day, no copies of the report have ever been recovered.

Project Sign was terminated in late-1948 and replaced by Project Grudge, which was later succeeded in 1951 by the now-famous Project Blue Book. Based at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio, Blue Book served as the government’s main repository for sightings of unidentified aerial phenomena. Over the next 18 years, its tiny staff investigated thousands of reports and often went into the field to interview Americans who had experienced close encounters with all manner of flying saucers and discs, cigar-shaped rockets and dazzling nighttime lights.

The “Blue Book” era began with a bang. Projects Sign and Grudge had only averaged around 170 UFO reports each year, but 1952 brought an unprecedented 1,501 sightings. Perhaps the most extraordinary of all came in July 1952, when a series of unusual blips suddenly lit up radar screens across Washington, D.C. Bewildered military personnel scrambled jets to intercept the bogies, but while their pilots reported seeing bright lights dancing through the night sky, they were unable to catch them. In the wake of the sightings, the U.S. Air Force held a press conference in which Major General John Samford said the government would continue to investigate reports made by “credible observers of relatively incredible things.” Samford said the events in Washington may have been “temperature inversions”—layers of warm air that can cause radar aberrations—and he assured Americans that UFOs did not bear “any conceivable threat to the United States.”

Despite Samford’s claims, many in President Harry Truman’s administration were indeed concerned that UFOs were a safety hazard. Whether the sightings were real or just mass hysteria, reports from panicked citizens ran the risk of choking federal communications channels. Some in the CIA even believed the Soviets could stage a UFO incident to help screen an attack on the United States. In January 1953, the CIA convened a group of experts under the direction of Caltech physicist H.P. Robertson to review the flying saucer issue. This “Robertson Panel” concluded that most UFO sightings could be easily explained away as harmless optical illusions or weather phenomena. Still, the group suggested the government should take steps to debunk UFO events to help prevent a potential public uproar. In a move that would provide fuel for conspiracy theorists’ fires for years to come, they also suggested that the feds soothe the national consciousness by using mass media, celebrities and even the Walt Disney Company to ridicule and discredit UFOs.

With the help of civilian astronomer J. Allen Hynek, Project Blue Book’s investigators spent the next several years debunking UFO sightings as everything from hoaxes and misidentified aircraft to birds, weather balloons, astronomical phenomena and contrails. The team successfully cleared up thousands of cases, yet their explanations often seemed as unbelievable as the reports themselves. A 1966 UFO in Michigan was blamed on “swamp gas,” and in 1968, Blue Book concluded that a group of B-52 pilots who witnessed strange lights moving over North Dakota had simply seen the star Vega. Among the many who reserved harsh words for Blue Book’s methods was none other than Dr. Hynek, who had been with the program since the days of Project Sign and was popularly viewed as its chief debunker. “The entire Blue Book operation was a foul-up,” he later wrote in the 1970s. “Not enough attention was paid to the subject to acquire the kind of data needed even to decide the nature of the UFO phenomenon.”

more after the jump:
http://www.history.com/news/u-s-air-force-closes-the-book-on-ufos-45-years-ago

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xx Re: Stuff & Nonsense
« Reply #11914 on: Dec 17th, 2014, 11:06am »

My question would be ...if that came from Earth, just what is it reflected against? Laser beams do not just stop unless it hits something!


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xx Re: Stuff & Nonsense
« Reply #11915 on: Dec 17th, 2014, 2:04pm »

on Dec 17th, 2014, 11:06am, LoneGunMan wrote:
My question would be ...if that came from Earth, just what is it reflected against? Laser beams do not just stop unless it hits something!


Lone


Good question Lone,

Crystal


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xx Re: Stuff & Nonsense
« Reply #11916 on: Dec 17th, 2014, 2:05pm »

New Star Wars The Old Republic pet, a Hoth Wampa Cub.


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I like to call him "Yeti" grin

Crystal


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xx Re: Stuff & Nonsense
« Reply #11917 on: Dec 17th, 2014, 9:01pm »

No question about it Crystal, an Albino Yeti, or a hybrid Nordic having a bad hair day.

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Dig This!
Million mummy mystery: Egyptian cemetery with 1mn bodies stumps scientists
http://rt.com/news/215115-egypt-million-mummies-discovered/
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She was buried with great care as someone who obviously loved her very much did all they could to take care of this little girl in burial. Very sad. But they succeeded, it was a beautiful burial.“

The scientists found one mummy with a height of more than 2 meters, Muhlestein told the audience in Toronto. The mummy was discovered long before Muhlestein became the project director.

"We once found a male who was over 7 feet (2.1 meters) tall, who was far too tall to fit into the shaft, so they bent him in half and tossed him in," he said.

The researcher later told Live Science that “even with great nutrition, it's really unusual" as generally common people didn’t have enough food at that time.

One more mystery of the mummy burials was the large number of blonde and red-headed mummies.
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According to Muhlestein, the researchers can use the database to "show us all of the blonde burials, and [it shows] they are clustered in one area, or all of the red-headed burials, and [it shows] they're clustered in another area."

‘Perhaps we have family areas or genetic groups [in certain areas], but we're still trying to explore that," he added.

Interesting find!

add: Keep up the great work as usual Zetar!

PPS I forgot to ask you what was that on the cave floor in your photo on the previous page. Is Hal in any immediate danger of it blocking his exit? I have never seen anything like that before and it looks sinister. He should give it wide berth.
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Breaking the Matrix ..More than UFO related..Its Life Related
http://ufotrail.blogspot.com/
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xx Re: Stuff & Nonsense
« Reply #11918 on: Dec 18th, 2014, 09:20am »

GOOD MORNING INKTOMI & ALL OF OUR UFOCASEBOOKERS cheesy

Great article Inktomi,

Where in the heck did a million bodies come from? Creepy! And a great sci fi novel.

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xx Re: Stuff & Nonsense
« Reply #11919 on: Dec 18th, 2014, 09:25am »







Published on Dec 17, 2014

UFO Fleet Leaving Moon Crater Seen Through A Telescope.

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« Reply #11920 on: Dec 18th, 2014, 09:27am »






Published on Dec 17, 2014

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xx Re: Stuff & Nonsense
« Reply #11921 on: Dec 18th, 2014, 11:00am »

CRYSTAL,

INDEED QUITE INTERESTING!

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« Reply #11922 on: Dec 18th, 2014, 4:14pm »

Hey Z cheesy






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xx Re: Stuff & Nonsense
« Reply #11923 on: Dec 18th, 2014, 6:16pm »

We started using stereo-lithography (3-D printing) about 12 years ago for design modeling in the automotive industry. It is amazing how it has grown and become an important technology in so many areas!




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« Reply #11924 on: Dec 18th, 2014, 6:54pm »

cool cool cool

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GREAT SPIRITS ALWAYS ENCOUNTER THE MOST VIOLENT OPPOSITION FROM MEDIOCRE MINDS E=MC2
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