Re: Stuff & Nonsense
« Reply #13683 on: Oct 26th, 2015, 08:11am »
GOOD MORNING ALL
Experts have high hopes for survival of latest baby orca
Originally published October 25, 2015 at 2:13 pm By Sara Jean Green
The sixth orca calf born since December — and the fourth born into J pod — was spotted off the west coast of San Juan Island on Saturday. Two years of robust chinook salmon runs are being credited for the baby boom.
Whale watchers and researchers have high hopes for the survival of the newest baby orca spotted near the San Juan Islands late Saturday afternoon, according to the Pacific Whale Watch Association.
The baby was born into J Pod, one of three pods of southern-resident orca whales, and the pod most experienced at keeping babies alive, said Michael Harris, the association’s executive, on Sunday.
“It’s fantastic, it’s great news. We’ve got a bit of a Brady Bunch out there right now,” Harris said of the latest addition, dubbed J53. The baby is the fourth born into J Pod this year.
First spotted off the west coast of San Juan Island, J53 was a bit of a surprise and is the fourth calf born to J17 — a 38-year-old whale who is a grandmother to other orcas, J46 and J47, Harris said.
The birth was confirmed Saturday night with photos taken by the crew on the Maya’s Legacy, one of 36 operators in the whale-watch association in British Columbia and Washington. Photos of J53 have shown “fetal folds,” or folded skin, indicating it was born a few days ago, Harris said.
Another group, L Pod, has seen two calves born since December, including one born in March to a10-year-old whale, the youngest on record, Harris said. Orcas usually don’t give birth until they are 14 or 15, he said.
The sex of J53 hasn’t been determined yet, but Harris is hoping for a girl. He said only one of the other five baby whales born this year is female, with the overall population roughly split between males and females.
While male orcas born in the wild live 50 to 60 years, female orcas can live well into their 90s or beyond, he said, noting that along with L17, two “older” J pod whales gave birth at 43 and 44 years old this year.
A 50-year-old female orca from L pod died a few weeks ago, so the combined population of J, K and L pods in the wild now stands at 82, Harris said.
One member of L Pod, a whale called Lolita, is at the Miami Seaquarium.
Ten years ago, the combined population of the three pods was 78 when the southern-resident orcas were given protection under the Endangered Species Act, Harris said. Late last year, the population dropped to 77 after an orca died from an infection while giving birth.
At that point, “some of the most optimistic researchers were saying we might not be able to turn this tide, this slide toward extinction,” Harris said. “But not me.”
He credits robust runs of chinook salmon this summer and last summer for the current baby boom. Chinook salmon, another endangered species, makes up 90 percent of the orcas’ diet, Harris said.
He said researchers are already predicting “a very difficult run” with far fewer fish in 2016.
“It confirms what we’ve been saying for years — you can’t address recovery of orcas without addressing chinook,” he said. Right now, “there’s enough food in the water to support this kind of baby boom.”
Baby orcas have a 50-50 chance of surviving their first year, “so we’re not out of the woods with these babies,” Harris said, though he noted four have already survived three-quarters of their first year.
“J Pod is the most experienced having babies and raising babies and they’re the most urban,” so have experience keeping babies out of trouble from hazards like ship strikes, he said.
In recent days, the Vancouver Aquarium and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have released detailed photos and videos captured by drones, Harris said. Based on those photos, researchers estimate another three to six whales could be pregnant, he said.
The images have also shown adult whales in J Pod “bringing salmon over to a mother and baby” and “baby-sitting” while a mother whale goes off to hunt, Harris said.
“It’s an extended family. They take care of each other,” he said. “We’ll see grandmothers or siblings giving mom a break. That’s what J Pod particularly does well.
“It’s that village. It takes a village (to raise a baby) and this village is activated right now.”
No body cares about FUKU zilla ? How about Petrozilla
Hal see what you did? You spoiled it for everyone..no body is scared anymore.. Jm was just kidding as he finished eating some shell fish and other than a small rash here and there ..probably an allergy..he was just dandy!
we all know
The ocean is an infinite open system..nothing can hurt it Not chernoble, not 3 mile island, not fuku or even the dumps on fire near trump towers in vegas..Not the EPAs turning good water to orange koolaid from mining wastes.. not the thousands of tonnes of seawage and medical waste..dumped either..nada..
we have more coral reefs than ever before..yes no? Look how nice and blue it look from space..
not even the dumping daily by ships ..15 percent of all traffic every year..crazy to think so..I know..
Re: Stuff & Nonsense
« Reply #13691 on: Oct 27th, 2015, 08:00am »
GOOD MORNING LOVELY UFOCASEBOOKERS
Ancient babies boost Bering land bridge layover
DNA links many Native Americans to infants in Alaskan grave
Date: October 26, 2015 Source: University of Utah
University of Utah scientists deciphered maternal genetic material from two babies buried together at an Alaskan campsite 11,500 years ago. They found the infants had different mothers and were the northernmost known kin to two lineages of Native Americans found farther south throughout North and South America.
By showing that both genetic lineages lived so far north so long ago, the study supports the "Beringian standstill model." It says that Native Americans descended from people who migrated from Asia to Beringia -- the vast Bering land bridge that once linked Siberia and Alaska -- and then spent up to 10,000 years in Beringia before moving rapidly into the Americas beginning at least 15,000 years ago.
"These infants are the earliest human remains in northern North America, and they carry distinctly Native American lineages," says University of Utah anthropology professor Dennis O'Rourke, senior author of the paper set for online publication the week of Oct. 26 in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
"We see diversity that is not present in modern Native American populations of the north and we see it at a fairly early date. This is evidence there was substantial genetic variation in the Beringian population before any of them moved south."
Another theory was that the two Native Americans lineages evolved as the people moved south and dispersed, not while they still were in Beringia, says Justin Tackney, the new study's first author and a University of Utah anthropology doctoral student. But finding those lineages in the infants only a few thousand years after the migration south began indicates those lineages already were present before the migration started.
"It supports the Beringian standstill theory in that if they [the infants] represent a population that descended from the earlier Beringian population, it helps confirm the extent of genetic diversity in that source population," O'Rourke says. "You don't see any of these lineages that are distinctly Native American in Asia, even Siberia, so there had to be a period of isolation for these distinctive Native American lineages to have evolved away from their Asian ancestors. We believe that was in Beringia."
The burial of ancient infants is rare. One was a 6- to 12-week-old baby; the other a stillborn or preterm 30-week fetus. The discovery of the infant burials first was reported in the same journal this past November. They are among human remains at only eight sites in North America older than 8,000 years and from which researchers obtained mitochondrial DNA -- genetic information inherited only from mothers. The infants are the northernmost of all those remains and of the two lineages they represent.
In the eight sites, "we find all five of the major lineages of Native Americans," Tackney says. "That indicates that all were present in the early population in Beringia that gave rise to all modern Native Americans."
Sequencing DNA from the burials of Upward Sun River
The Upward Sun River ancient campsite was discovered in 2006 in the Tanana River valley about 50 miles southeast of Fairbanks. The area once was part of Beringia. The land bridge between Asia and Alaska existed when sea levels were low during the last Ice Age from 28,000 years ago to at least 18,000 years ago.
In 2010, a team led by University of Alaska Fairbanks anthropologist Ben Potter discovered the remains of a cremated 3-year-old child buried near the hearth of a residential structure. The child's DNA couldn't be recovered from the charred remains.
In 2013, Potter's team found the remains of two more buried infants beneath the first. They had't been cremated. Potter says it's hard to tell how the infants died. Potter, who co-authored the new study, asked O'Rourke to analyze their mitochondrial DNA.
O'Rourke and Tackney worked with University of Utah geneticists to sequence the mitochondrial DNA of the two infants -- known as USR1 and USR2 for Upward Sun River. Mitochondrial DNA is located in mitochondria, or the power plants of cells.
From fragments of skull bone, the researchers read 58.7 million DNA sequences from USR1 and 55.8 million from USR2. From those, the Utah scientists obtained 20,004 high-quality mitochondrial DNA sequences for USR1 and 32,979 for USR2.
"We were able to obtain the entire mitochondrial genome [genetic blueprint] sequence for each of them, as opposed to just a partial sequence," O'Rourke says.
Infants related to two native lineages throughout the Americas
Potter says the new findings help in "understanding the genetic diversity among very early Beringian populations that connects them in many ways to Native Americans in both North and South America."
The researchers identified infant USR1 as belonging to Native American lineage C1b, while infant USR2 is part of a more common native lineage known as B2. (Native American lineages begin with the letters A, B, C, D or X.)
"It's not common to find infants buried together that are not related maternally," O'Rourke says. "It raises questions about the social structure and mortuary practices of these early people," including whether the babies had a common father.
Lineage C1 (most remains aren't identified to the subgroup C1b level) is found most often among the Pima and Hualapai Indians of Arizona, the Delta Yuman of California, and six other tribes, including the Ignaciano in Bolivia, the extinct Tainos in Puerto Rico and a group represented by 700-year-old bones at Norris Farms in Illinois.
Lineage B2 is found most often in 37 tribes throughout the Americas, including the Yakama, Wishram, Northern Paiute-Shoshoni, Navajo, Hualapai (which also carries C1 genes), Zuni and Jemez in North America and the Quecha and Aymara in Peru. The B2 lineage also was common among the U.S. Southwest's ancient Fremont and Anasazi.
The genetic data indicate that the most recent common ancestor of the C1b lineage existed at least 12,854 years ago, and the most recent common ancestor of the B2 lineage existed at least 12,024 years ago. O'Rourke suspects the real times were even earlier, but that nonetheless both 11,500-year-old infants were at or near the root of their respective genealogical trees.
"It may well be that the population represented by Upward Sun River is indicative of many such isolated populations distributed across Beringia, each of which may have contributed migrants to that early American Indian dispersal, and each may have been slightly genetically different from the others," O'Rourke says.
Native lineages spread unevenly in the Americas
Modern tribal populations in northern North America show little mitochondrial DNA diversity, O'Rourke says. Why did lineages that once occupied the subarctic vanish there but show elsewhere in the Americas? And why aren't the five major lineages spread evenly across the Americas?
"The reason is changes in population size and rates of population migration," O'Rourke says. "In small populations, some lineages just get lost and don't get passed on, and in others they become established and more common."
"Studying the DNA of ancient individuals is important in researching how the Western Hemisphere was populated," Tackney says. "Studying the genetics of these infants who died 11,500 years ago in what is now central Alaska helps answer questions of who these people were and how they are related to modern native populations."
Re: Stuff & Nonsense
« Reply #13694 on: Oct 28th, 2015, 08:00am »
GOOD MORNING Z & ALL OF OUR UFOCASEBOOKERS
Sonic tractor beam moves stuff with sound
Date: October 27, 2015 Source: University of Sussex
A team of researchers from the Universities of Bristol and Sussex in collaboration with Ultrahaptics has built a novel sonic tractor beam that can lift and move objects using sound waves.
The concept of tractor beams that can grab and lift objects has been used by science-fiction writers, and programmes like Star Trek, but has since come to fascinate scientists and engineers. Researchers have now built a working tractor beam that uses high-amplitude sound waves to generate an acoustic hologram which can pick up and move small objects.
The technique, published in Nature Communications, could be developed for a wide range of applications -- for example, a sonic production line could transport delicate objects and assemble them, all without physical contact. On the other hand, a miniature version could grip and transport drug capsules or microsurgical instruments through living tissue.
Asier Marzo, PhD student and the lead author, said: "It was an incredible experience the first time we saw the object held in place by the tractor beam. All my hard work has paid off, it's brilliant."
Bruce Drinkwater, Professor of Ultrasonics in the University of Bristol's Department of Mechanical Engineering, added: "We all know that sound waves can have a physical effect. But here we have managed to control the sound to a degree never previously achieved."
Sriram Subramanian, Professor of Informatics at the University of Sussex and co-founder of Ultrahaptics, explained: "In our device we manipulate objects in mid-air and seemingly defy gravity. Here we individually control dozens of loudspeakers to tell us an optimal solution to generate an acoustic hologram that can manipulate multiple objects in real-time without contact."
The researchers used an array of 64 miniature loudspeakers to create high-pitch and high-intensity sound waves. The tractor beam works by surrounding the object with high-intensity sound and this creates a force field that keeps the objects in place. By carefully controlling the output of the loudspeakers the object can be either held in place, moved or rotated.
The team have shown that three different shapes of acoustic force fields work as tractor beams. The first is an acoustic force field that resembles a pair of fingers or tweezers. The second is an acoustic vortex, the objects becoming stuck-in and then trapped at the core and the third is best described as a high-intensity cage that surrounds the objects and holds them in place from all directions.
Previous work on acoustic studies had to surround the object with loudspeakers, which limits the extent of movement and restricts many applications. Last year, the University of Dundee presented the concept of a tractor beam but no objects were held in the ray.