Re: Stuff and Nonsense Unleashed
« Reply #202 on: Nov 14th, 2016, 07:56am »
GOOD MORNING LOVELIES
Physicists just discovered a second state of liquid water
14 NOV 2016
It’s one of the most fundamental compounds on Earth, and it makes up roughly 60 percent of the human body, and yet water is turning out to be stranger than we could have ever imagined.
Researchers have been investigating the physical properties of water, and found that when it’s heated to between 40 and 60 degrees Celsius, it hits a 'crossover temperature', and appears to start switching between two different states of liquid.
Re: Stuff and Nonsense Unleashed
« Reply #205 on: Nov 14th, 2016, 6:42pm »
MagLab, second only to CERN!
(I live about 20 miles from the MagLab. Once a year, they have an open house. Awesome!
FSU's MagLab creates world's strongest magnet
Byron Dobson , Democrat senior writer November 13, 2016 Hybrid magnet reaches full force of 36 tesla
It didn’t set off dazzling fireworks displays or illuminating scoreboards, but a recent research breakthrough at the MagLab likely drew high-fives from scientists around the world.
Researchers at the Florida State University-based National High Magnetic Field Laboratory have built “the strongest magnet in the world” for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The discovery is a major advancement in the study of molecular structures in proteins and materials.
The 33-ton magnet built at the Innovation Park site, reached 36 Telsa Tuesday, according to FSU. Known as a series-connected hybrid (SCH) magnet, it is expected to be a research wonder for biologists, chemists and physicist for years to come.
“It will be used as a world-record magnet for at least the next decade,” said Tim Cross, who oversees NMR research at the MagLab. “It will be attracting people from all over the world to Tallahassee and Florida State University.
“This is great news for FSU and our town.”
Of course, a discovery of this magnitude takes time. In this case, according to researchers, it took nearly 10 years, more than 120,000 person-hours and $18.7 million from the National Science Foundation and the state of Florida.
“In order to generate the magnetic field, power needs to be injected into the magnet,” Cross said. “This is a lot of power; 14 megawatts of power. We did it very cautiously. I think I saw 10 different people in the room with laptops. On Tuesday, it made it to 36 Tesla. The previous week, we had been getting closer and closer. I think we hit 32 Tesla.”
Mark Bird, director of magnetic science and technology, has supervised 20 magnet projects at the lab. The new development is far-reaching, he said.
“This achievement reflects a tremendous amount of technology development," Bird said. He described the final product as “one of the most complicated magnets ever built at the MagLab, a testament to a great team working with great determination."
At 36 Tesla, the SCH is more than 40 percent stronger than the previous world-record NMR magnet (the MagLab's Keck magnet) and more than 50 percent more powerful than the highest field high-resolution NMR magnet, a 23.5 tesla system in Lyon, France, according to researchers.
In NMR, scientists use magnets and radio waves to locate a specific element (commonly hydrogen) in proteins and other samples, which helps them figure out those complex structures. A powerful technique in health research, scientists use it, for example, to pinpoint a virus' vulnerability to drugs, according to a university release.
Existing NMR magnets are limited to locating just a handful of elements, notably hydrogen, carbon and nitrogen. The SCH's 36-tesla field could revolutionize NMR because it significantly boosts the instrument's sensitivity, expanding the menu of elements scientists can see.
"There's going to be a real increase in the reach of NMR into the periodic table," Cross said. "So we're going to be able to look at many more elements than we've really been able to in the past."
An advancement in research is the fact that the SCH magnet will allow researchers to observe oxygen, along with zinc, copper, aluminum, nickel and gadolinium — all important materials in research.
"Oxygen is where so much biological chemistry takes place," Cross said, "and until the SCH, we've just not been able to look at it."
Mightier magnet will increase FSU's research capacities
Byron Dobson , Democrat senior writer November 13, 2016
Materials, medicines and building construction will benefit from MagLab research
Each year, an estimated 1,500 scientists from around the world visit Tallahassee to conduct research at the MagLab at Florida State University.
And while most of the research is tedious, exacting and often complicated, the end result will have a direct impact on future health treatments, what materials are purchased and even what medicines are prescribed.
Senior writer Byron Dobson asked Tim Cross, a biochemistry professor at FSU, to discuss some practical applications as a result of this week’s tesla record.
Q. Why is this an important development to our everyday lives?
A: This very high field magnet, that has been designed to generate a stable and homogenous magnetic field, will be used to provide enhanced pharmaceuticals, to enhance chemical catalysts for producing plastics and many other materials used in our daily lives.
The processes for making specialized cements used in high-pressure oil wells or in the construction of skyscrapers will be studied and enhanced. How viruses function during infections and how drug resistance is achieved will be studied leading to new ways to defeat viral infections and drug resistance.
This magnet will allow us for the first time to explore the chemistry of oxygen and sulfur atoms by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance or NMR - this is the parent technology for our MRI imaging that is used in our hospitals.
In a sense what we do is to record an image of molecules, but it goes beyond that to understand how molecules function, how they achieve the properties they have, such as our pharmaceuticals.
For decades we have been using NMR technology in chemistry and biochemistry laboratories, such as those in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry at FSU and in the MagLab’s NMR and MRI User Program that attracts researchers from all over the world to our facilities. Until now most of those studies have focused on carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen atoms in molecules, materials and proteins, but much of the important chemistry that these molecules, materials and proteins carries out involves atoms that have been difficult to study by commercial instrumentation. This new high field magnet and the instrumentation we have assembled for research using this magnet will allow us to routinely study the oxygens, the sulfur, the magnesium atoms and many more for the first time.
Q: Why is this significant for the Mag Lab and for Florida State University’s quest to become a Top 25 public university?
A: The federal grants used to design, engineer and construct this magnet are grants to Florida State University and some of the resources to perform scientific research in this magnet are also grants to FSU that have and will help move FSU toward a top 25 university.
Users for this magnet will be drawn from all over the world to use this new 36T magnet and the unique capabilities we are developing and implementing on this magnet so that this magnet stays at the scientific forefront for more than a decade. Q: Can you put in simple terms what a hybrid magnet is and what research it will enhance?
A: This hybrid magnet is a combination of two different magnet technologies; one is a superconducting magnet technology and the other is a resistive magnet technology. The superconducting wires at very low temperature conduct electricity without resistance and provide a 14 Tesla background field with a bore diameter not dissimilar to that of an MRI instrument except at much stronger magnetic fields than those used in hospitals or in research facilities such as those in our medical community and at FSU that operate at 3 Tesla. The inner ‘coils’ of the magnet are resistive, meaning that as the power goes through them generating an additional 22 Tesla they generate resistance and need to be cooled by vast quantities of chilled and deionized water rushing through the magnet. Q: How much of the design and construction work was done here in Innovation Park?
A: I believe the first discussions about this magnet began in 2001. The design and engineering was almost exclusively done in Innovation Park - some components such as the superconducting wire and the materials for the resistive portion of the magnet were purchased from outside of the MagLab, but the assembly, installation, and integration to the DC Power Supplies were done by folks at the Magnet Lab.
Re: Stuff and Nonsense Unleashed
« Reply #207 on: Nov 15th, 2016, 07:59am »
GOOD MORNING LOVELY UFOCASEBOOKERS
'Back to the Future' inspires solar nanotech-powered clothing
Date: November 14, 2016 Source: University of Central Florida
Marty McFly's self-lacing Nikes in Back to the Future Part II inspired a UCF scientist who has developed filaments that harvest and store the sun's energy -- and can be woven into textiles.
The breakthrough would essentially turn jackets and other clothing into wearable, solar-powered batteries that never need to be plugged in. It could one day revolutionize wearable technology, helping everyone from soldiers who now carry heavy loads of batteries to a texting-addicted teen who could charge his smartphone by simply slipping it in a pocket.
"That movie was the motivation," Associate Professor Jayan Thomas, a nanotechnology scientist at the University of Central Florida's NanoScience Technology Center, said of the film released in 1989. "If you can develop self-charging clothes or textiles, you can realize those cinematic fantasies -- that's the cool thing."
The research was published Nov. 11 in the academic journal Nature Communications.
Thomas already has been lauded for earlier ground-breaking research. Last year, he received an R&D 100 Award -- given to the top inventions of the year worldwide -- for his development of a cable that can not only transmit energy like a normal cable but also store energy like a battery. He's also working on semi-transparent solar cells that can be applied to windows, allowing some light to pass through while also harvesting solar power.
His new work builds on that research.
"The idea came to me: We make energy-storage devices and we make solar cells in the labs. Why not combine these two devices together?" Thomas said.
Thomas, who holds joint appointments in the College of Optics & Photonics and the Department of Materials Science & Engineering, set out to do just that.
Taking it further, he envisioned technology that could enable wearable tech. His research team developed filaments in the form of copper ribbons that are thin, flexible and lightweight. The ribbons have a solar cell on one side and energy-storing layers on the other.
Though more comfortable with advanced nanotechnology, Thomas and his team then bought a small, tabletop loom. After another UCF scientists taught them to use it, they wove the ribbons into a square of yarn.
The proof-of-concept shows that the filaments could be laced throughout jackets or other outwear to harvest and store energy to power phones, personal health sensors and other tech gadgets. It's an advancement that overcomes the main shortcoming of solar cells: The energy they produce must flow into the power grid or be stored in a battery that limits their portability.
"A major application could be with our military," Thomas said. "When you think about our soldiers in Iraq or Afghanistan, they're walking in the sun. Some of them are carrying more than 30 pounds of batteries on their bodies. It is hard for the military to deliver batteries to these soldiers in this hostile environment. A garment like this can harvest and store energy at the same time if sunlight is available."
There are a host of other potential uses, including electric cars that could generate and store energy whenever they're in the sun.
"That's the future. What we've done is demonstrate that it can be made," Thomas said. "It's going to be very useful for the general public and the military and many other applications."