Re: Stuff and Nonsense Unleashed
« Reply #2130 on: Sep 3rd, 2017, 07:40am »
The Rise And The Fall of The Romans Can Be Charted in Their Lead Plumbing
If lead could talk.
DAVID NIELD 2 SEP 2017
The plumbing systems installed in many Roman cities were engineering marvels of their time, and an analysis of soil samples has given experts new insight into how the sewage systems of the day were linked to the rise and fall of Roman civilisations.
How are they linked? When the Romans discovered lead around 2,200 years ago, it was quickly used to expand and upgrade the plumbing in cities, leading to small lead particles getting into the water supply.
By tracking levels of lead in layers of soil sediments, researchers were able to correlate increased lead levels with urban expansion, giving them an ingenious way of peering back into the past to see how the city of Rome fared.
"High-resolution geochemical, isotopic, and 14C analyses of a sedimentary core from Ostia harbor have allowed us to date the commissioning of Rome's lead pipe water distribution system to around the second century BC, considerably later than Rome's first aqueduct built in the late fourth century BC," write the researchers.
"Even more significantly, the isotopic record of Pb pollution proves to be an unparalleled proxy for tracking the urban development of ancient Rome over more than a millennium."
The team from the National Centre for Scientific Research in France, the University of Southampton in the UK, and the University of Glasgow in the UK, looked at 177 different 12-metre soil cores taken from the sites of ancient Rome's two harbours: Ostia (now inland) and Portus.
Carbon dating was used to identify the age of the samples before their chemical composition was tested.
Lead particles from the city's plumbing would've washed into the Tiber river, and then started sinking in the slower harbour waters, suggest the researchers, so more lead should mean the water passed through more lead piping.
They found a sudden rise of lead corresponding to 200 BCE, when it looks like wood and stone aqueducts were replaced by lead. Later layers of soil showed lead with different compositions, hinting that Rome's plumbing was being improved with lead of varying ages and from varying places.
Through this analysis the researchers say they can get a better understanding of the expansion of the water system, the time it fell into disrepair (probably during the civil wars of the first century BCE), and the time it peaked (the stable, early high Imperial period).
With very few written records of some of these times available to historians, the soil samples could help plug some crucial gaps in what we know about Rome.
The 200 BCE spike in lead, for example, puts lead piping in the city 150 years earlier than previous archaeological evidence had shown. The plumbing would've been expensive to put together and maintain, and so it acts as a mirror to the city's fortunes – when Rome suffered, so did its pipes.
Some have hypothesised that the Romans love of lead led to both people and marine life getting poisoned by it. This new research doesn't put an end to that debate, but it does tell us much more about the growth and decline of the city.
"This core record fills the gap in the system's history before the appearance of more detailed literary and inscriptional evidence from the late first century BC onward," write the researchers.
Re: Stuff and Nonsense Unleashed
« Reply #2131 on: Sep 4th, 2017, 08:37am »
Happy Labor Day & Good morning lovely UFOCasebookers
Headless Ghost Convinces Thief to Return Stone from Abbey
Paul Seaburn September 4, 2017
It seems like a harmless act. While visiting an old stone building or a natural monument, many are enticed to pick up a curious rock and take it home as free souvenir. Before you know it, the stone monument is a pile of pebbles and the volcanic mountain is an ash molehill. Or worse. The thief is haunted by the spirits that protect the place, bringing bad luck, or worse, endless gnawing guilt. There’s only one solution. Death by self-stoning? That’s a difficult one to pull off. The spirits will generally relax if the stone is returned. That’s what an Australian tourist did to end the horrendous circumstances he brought upon himself after stealing a stone from the abbey at Abbeycwmhir in Wales, a monastery established in 1176 and possibly guarded and haunted by a headless prince.
”I am so sorry for taking, borrowing, stealing this piece of the old Abbeycwmhir. ‘I have been an avid follower of the Welsh Kings and their history and so I took this rock. Ever since I have had the most awful luck as if Llewellyn himself was angry with me. So I am sending it back. I will not leave my name or address, just a heartfelt sorry from an Australian fan.”
That note plus a small acorn-sized rock are now on display at Cwmhir Abbey near Llandrindod Wells in Powys, a county in Mid Wales, as a warning to anyone thinking of absconding with a piece of Welsh history. It was received recently by the Abbeycwmhir Heritage Trust and not much else is known or revealed about the luckless Aussie thief.
However, much is known about the headless ghost who may be behind the bad luck. The Cistercian (a religious order) monastery was founded in 1176 by Cadwallon ap Madog, a prince who was killed by the English Sir Roger Mortimer of Wigmore in 1179. the families of Mortimer and Cadwallon ap Madog feuded over the abbey for decades. Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, last native Prince of Wales by direct descent, was killed in a nearby battle in 1282 in the rebellion against Edward I, and his headless body was buried in the abbey.
Aha! Aha? Not yet. While tales of the headless ghost of Llywelyn haunting the abbey have been told for centuries, he may not be buried there. One persistent rumor puts him under a pub in Cardiff, the capital of Wales and 100 miles (166 km) from Powys. The area around Llanrumney Hall was once a monastic grange or farming area. It became the home of the famous pirate, Sir Henry Morgan, and was later an Elizabethan mansion and finally, a pub. According to Dr John Davies, chairman of the Abbey Cwmhir Heritage Trust, Edward I may have wanted Llywelyn buried where he would not be hailed as a martyr, so the Llanrumney Hall story is possible.
“A grave, secretly, in a monastery in a safe part of Wales administered by a monastic community that had no Welsh sympathies, would be much safer. The story could make sense.”
In fact, another legend is that a stone coffin found in a thick wall during Llanrumney Hall renovations in 1812-1823 contained a headless corpse. The coffin and its contents were supposedly reburied under the hall, which is now a pub.
If the headless ghost of Llywelyn is in Cardiff, whose ghost was haunting the Aussie who returned the stolen stone? Whoever it is, it would be wise to avoid taking rock souvenirs from either place.
GREAT SPIRITS ALWAYS ENCOUNTER THE MOST VIOLENT OPPOSITION FROM MEDIOCRE MINDS E=MC2
Re: Stuff and Nonsense Unleashed
« Reply #2133 on: Sep 4th, 2017, 6:00pm »
Trump, South Korean president talk North Korea
President Donald Trump and his South Korean counterpart spoke on the phone Monday morning for the first time since North Korea boasted of another nuclear test. Trump and South Korean President Moon Jae-in agreed to remove the limit on the payload of South Korean missiles as part of the countries' response to the North's move on Sunday, South Korea's presidential office said in a statement. The North claimed it had detonated a hydrogen bomb underground.
The phone call came as the U.N. Security Council was holding its second emergency meeting in a week on the subject. Defense Secretary Jim Mattis on Sunday said the U.S. will answer any threat from the North with a "massive military response."
Trump has grown increasingly frustrated with the response of other countries to North Korean provocations. Over the weekend, he threatened to halt all trade with countries doing business with the North, a veiled warning to China
Re: Stuff and Nonsense Unleashed
« Reply #2134 on: Sep 5th, 2017, 07:50am »
Good morning all, hope everyone had a good weekend.
Yorkshire schoolgirl left stunned after discovering 'King Arthur's' legendary Excalibur
Nathan Sandhu 3 September 2017
According to local folklore, Dozmary Pool is the spot where King Arthur returned Excalibur after being fatally wounded in the Battle of Camlann.
It is said to have been accepted by the Lady of the Lake, whose arm mysteriously rose from the water to received the fabled blade. Now, some 2,000 years later, seven-year-old Matilda Jones stumbled across a 4ft long sword in the waters of Dozmary Pool during a family holiday. She was paddling waist-deep on August 29 when she noticed the blade, which looks alarmingly like a medieval fighting weapon.
Ironically, her father Paul Jones, 51, had recounted the story of King Arthur to Matilda and her sister Lois, four, moments before the discovery. Paul, of Doncaster, south Yorks., said: "It was a blistering hot day and Matilda asked if we could go for a paddle. "She was only waist deep when she said she could see a sword. "I told her not to be silly and it was probably a bit of fencing, but when I looked down I realised it was a sword. It was just there laying flat on the bottom of the lake. "The sword is 4ft long - exactly Matilda's height."
Legend has it that King Arthur first received Excalibur from the Lady of Lake in Dozmary Pool after rowing out to receive it. After being mortally wounded in the Battle of Camlann he asked to be taken there so he could return the sword to her. After three attempts, his loyal follower Bedivere cast it into the water and the Lady of the Lake's arm rose to receive it. The pool, in the civil parish of Altarnun on Bodmin Moor, was said to be bottomless until droughts in 1859 and 1976 dried it out completely and revealed it is, in fact, and shallow pond. And Matilda's dad reckons the sword is probably only around 30 years old. "I don't think it's particularly old," he said. "It's probably an old film prop."
Re: Stuff and Nonsense Unleashed
« Reply #2137 on: Sep 5th, 2017, 11:06am »
Not likely, but possible?
EARTHQUAKE SWARM NOW AT 100 TEMBLORS
Experts say worst-case scenario is swarm will end with destructive 7.0 quake
By Journal Staff 9/5/2017
The colored squares show the epicenters of the 100 earthquakes that have occurred since Saturday night in Southeast Idaho. University of Utah Seismograph Stations image
People should be prepared for the worst when it comes to the earthquake swarm that’s been shaking Southeast Idaho since Saturday evening.
But experts say chances are the worst won’t happen.
Still, the most alarming scenario is that the earthquake swarm will end with a very destructive 7.0 magnitude earthquake capable of destroying buildings and killing people.
Dr. David Pearson, an Idaho State University geologist who studies earthquakes, said that likely won’t happen but people should be prepared for it nonetheless.
“There is most likely not going to be a larger earthquake but there is the possibility of a larger one,” Pearson said. “I don’t want to say everything is fine here because there’s the possibility it won’t be.”
There have been 100 earthquakes in Southeast Idaho since Saturday evening — all near Soda Springs in Caribou County. There were four quakes early Tuesday morning, 28 throughout the day on Monday, 34 throughout the day on Sunday and 34 on Saturday night. All 100 of the quakes were reported by University of Utah Seismograph Stations.
The U.S. Geological Survey said that 7.0 magnitude quakes will cause “considerable damage” to ordinary houses and buildings including “partial collapse.” Such temblors will also cause chimneys, factory smoke stacks and walls to collapse, according to the USGA.
Earthquake swarms have been known to continue for weeks or even months. Caribou County emergency management officials said they believe the current swarm could continue for another two weeks.
Although a 7.0 magnitude earthquake probably won’t happen, Pearson is advising Southeast Idahoans to make sure they secure all heavy objects in their houses to walls to keep them from falling. He also said it would be wise to remove anything heavy that’s above your bed so it can’t fall on you and cause injury.
Thus far the most powerful temblor in the swarm was the second quake to occur. It was a 5.3 magnitude earthquake and struck at 5:56 p.m. Saturday. Authorities say it’s been years since Southeast Idaho experienced a quake of 5.0 magnitude or greater. Such quakes can cause damage to houses and other buildings.
By comparison, a 7.0 magnitude quake would be at least 50 times bigger than Saturday evening’s 5.3 magnitude temblor.
All of the quakes occurred in Caribou County — east, northeast and southeast of Soda Springs, the county’s largest city with a population of about 3,000 people. The closest earthquake to Soda Springs occurred one mile east of the city, while the farthest were about 20 miles to the northeast and southeast. The 5.3 magnitude quake was about 10 miles to the east of the city.
The big question is what’s going to happen next and Pearson said, “We don’t necessarily know.”
Although experts believe a 7.0 magnitude quake is a definite possibility at some point in Southeast Idaho's future, Idaho itself has never experienced a quake that powerful. The strongest quake in state history was a 6.9 magnitude temblor that struck in 1983 between Mackay and Challis. That quake killed two children and damaged several buildings.
The quakes have been felt as far away as Salt Lake City, Ogden and Logan in northern Utah and throughout Southeast Idaho, including Pocatello, Chubbuck, American Falls, Basalt, Malad, Aberdeen, Springfield, Fort Hall, Arimo and Blackfoot.
Pearson said a 7.0 magnitude earthquake could be very devastating to Caribou County’s economy because it could damage and/or destroy the mining facilities that are the county’s largest employers.
I miss the mountains out there Crystal. Thanks for that !
4- Runners handled the terrain well also back in the day. No shovel required
My Mom & Dad would stick me in the back of an old jeep they had & we would go ghost town hunting all over Arizona. Some of the "roads" we were on were crazy. But it was fun. More than I would admit at the time.
I worked for the forest service out of the Crown King station before it was closed.
Re: Stuff and Nonsense Unleashed
« Reply #2142 on: Sep 6th, 2017, 07:31am »
Good morning lovely people
Deadly Whale Strandings in 2016 Could Have a Link to The Northern Lights
PETER DOCKRILL 6 SEP 2017
Scientists have never fully understood what drives whole pods of whales to beach themselves in mass strandings along the world's coastlines, but it's possible the impetus may not originate on Earth.
The same phenomenon that produces spellbinding aurorae like the northern lights could also be triggering mass whale strandings, with powerful solar storms causing disruptions in Earth's magnetic field that throw off the animals' powers of navigation, according to a new study.
A team led by physicist Klaus Vanselow from the University of Kiel in Germany suggests that a mass stranding of almost 30 sperm whales on European shores in January 2016 and a pair of major solar storms that occurred only weeks before in December 2015 are no mere coincidence.
When powerful solar storms happen, large volumes of plasma, radiation and high-energy particles are hurled from the Sun in events called coronal mass ejections (CMEs), which ultimately collide with Earth's magnetic field.
The collisions can cause geomagnetic storms, significant disruptions in the field which can cause wide-ranging shifts in the position of magnetic field structures.
During the December 2015 solar storms, the researchers calculate that these shifts exceeded 460 kilometres (286 miles) in the region surrounding the Norwegian Channel.
In light of previous research suggesting that whales and other marine animals navigate themselves through the sea by reference to Earth's magnetic field, Vanselow suggests that the disruptions produced in 2015 could have severely waylaid the group as they explored the North Sea – with fatal consequences.
"Sperm whales are very huge animals and swim in the free ocean so if they are disrupted by this effect, they can swim in the wrong direction for days and then correct it," Vanselow told Matt McGrath at BBC News.
"But in the area between Scotland and Norway, if the whales swim in the wrong direction for one or two days, then it is too late for them to go back, they are trapped."
That's because the 29 young male sperm whales that were the victims of the 2016 strandings fell prey to shallow waters in unfamiliar surroundings, and were unable to retrace their route before marooning themselves on beachfront belonging to the UK, Germany, the Netherlands, and France.
The team suggests these animals, which hail from a region called the Azores in the mid-Atlantic, wouldn't have previously received much if any exposure to strong geomagnetic disruptions, something that could have also played a part in their stranding.
"Where the polar lights are seen, that's the region with the most geomagnetic disruptions on the Earth's surface," Vanselow told the BBC.
While there's no way to actually prove the researchers' hypothesis – as other factors could have also contributed and led to the whales beaching themselves – it's not the first time solar storms have been linked to mass strandings.
A team from NASA is currently investigating how whales and other marine animals appear to lose their way when magnetic anomalies strike – and the scientists think learning how solar storms influence animal navigation might even prevent the worst landfalls from taking place.
"If we understand the relationship between the two, we may be able to use observations of solar storms as an early warning for potential strandings to occur," says NASA collaborator Katie Moore from the International Fund for Animal Welfare.
"This would allow stranding responders in global hotspots, and really around the world, to be better prepared to respond, thus having the opportunity to save more animals."
That kind of intervention may be some way off for now, but it's reassuring to think that scientists are looking into ways to save these magnificent creatures from this cosmic re-routing they could never hope to naturally circumvent – which basically amounts to the Sun breaking their GPS.
"I think it's the same for whales," Vanselow explained to Ryan F. Mandelbaum at Gizmodo.
"They do not realise that the Sun is changing the geomagnetic environment for a short time."
The findings are reported in the International Journal of Astrobiology.